I am not currently teaching ASL3350: Consecutive Interpreting.Please note: All information currently available on this site represents work and due dates relevant to a previous semester/course. Please check back during later semesters for updated information on this course. Thank you.
Managing memory issues in an interpretation
Arguably the greatest challenge to equivalency in an interpretation event is the ability to control the data shared during the event: who did what to whom? What was the number? Did s/he just spell ‘car’ or ‘cat’?
Here are some learning outcomes of which we might want to be aware:
- How do I learn? Am I more of a verbal, auditory, or kinesthetic learner? How does that impact my ability to produce a real-time spoken language interpretation?
- Or, where are my learning strengths? How do multiple intelligences help me understand my abilities in producing interpretations?
- How do I deal with message ‘decay’? Why do I make miscues?
- How can I harness the power of cognitive load in producing a spoken language interpretation?
Patrie, Consecutive Interpreting from English
Unit 5 (pp. 117–133) Required
Take this learning preferences style assessment to see where your learning tendencies might be focused. Required
Related: Take a Myers-Briggs personality exam for more detailed information on your learning and psychological preferences. The goal here is not to create a diagnosis, but to identify how you personally process (or dual process) information in an interpreting event.
What is the brain doing when it’s processing and/or looking at information? Required
Achieving “automaticity” is about making a newly learned skill a part of who you are, as opposed to just a thing you can do. Required
Article reminds that process to learning skills and tasks is relatively straightforward (context-based learning): ‘learn’ a concept, practice/use it in a real-world scenario, get coaching and feedback, rinse and repeat.
Amazing brains of real-time interpreters
Those Incredible Interpreters
Brain plasticity in interpreters
Articles which discuss the plasticity and multi-tasking ability of simultaneous interpreters.
Howard Gardner proposed the concept of ‘multiple intelligences’ to challenge the concept of IQs; various intelligences (at least eight of them) indicate where various types of information are processed and comprehended. Gardner contrasts multiple intelligences against learning styles, explaining them as “abilities,” rather than approaches to tasks. For a little more insight into your multiple intelligences, try your hand at an intelligences assessment. Recommended
One way to remember things for a longer period of time. Money quote: “But short-term memory and long-term memory are actually two ends of a spectrum. Everything that ends up in long-term memory has to start off in your short-term memory. Each time you recall something, it moves a little further into your long-term memory....” Is this something that interpreters can use? Recommended
Quora discussion/explanation about how information is actually stored and recalled; cf. some of our other discussions (on this page) about how this is accomplished. What is the application for sign language interpreting? Recommended
I’m not a huge fan of the ‘10 Things’ genre, but this is especially germane to our discussion.
Tangential to interpreting, the field of user experience spends a great deal of effort in understanding how users cognitively and psychologically process presented information. This article discusses cognitive effort, schema/schemata, and gestalt principles as a way of taxonomizing information. Nerd alert, but helpful in seeing that interpreters aren’t the only ones doing this.
Related: How human memory works (tips for designers): interface designers leverage human memory triggers and tactics to create stories and memorable experiences. Interpreter ‘designers’ do the same thing.
Science shows our memory can easily be distorted and erased — but our forgetfulness also helps us survive.
Less an article and more a list of other articles, this ‘article’ helps us reevaluate why we make bad — or inequivalent — decision in our interpreting work.
Ever wonder why some people don’t see or think that they make errors? It’s because we don’t know what we don’t know. Here’s the paper/research. Beware the juice. PDF/printable version here. Recommended
Bonus points: Learning to understand the concept of solipsism, or the philosophical viewpoint that only my viewpoint exists in the world and that any knowledge (ability?) outside of one’s own mind is dubious. (How many times have you heard, “oh, that’s not the way you should sign that...”)
2011 NYT article on the very real issue of defining the energy needed to make decisions and exercise self-control. What is the relationship to SL interpreting?
Readings related to Cognitive Load Theory
CLT has roots in work by instructional psychologists George Miller (1956; concept of 7±2;) and Simon & Chase (1973; “chunking”), and others and is the subject of a large body of study by John Sweller (1988, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, et al.) at the University of New South Wales. Sweller’s work primarily deals with the amount of information/cognition that is transmitted in instruction (SL interpreters as ‘instructors’ anyone?) but the findings are clearly germane to SL interpreters and their work. Required
An introduction to efficiency in learning (read pp. 9 – 13)
This is Chapter 1 of Clark, R. C.; Nguyen, F; & Sweller, J. (2006). Efficiency in learning: evidence-based guidelines to manage cognitive load. (pp. 1 – 13) New York: John Wiley and Sons. This short chapter gives an introduction to CLT, explains a broad taxonomy of types of cognitive load (‘intrinsic’, ‘germane/relevant’, and ‘extraneous/irrelevant’), and gives an introduction to techniques in managing these kinds of load.
This excerpt (pp. 603 – 605) from Wilson, Brent & Cole, Peggy (1996), Cognitive teaching models. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research for educational communications and technology (pp. 601-621). New York: MacMillan is a simplified explanation of CLT; how does this apply to SL interpreting work?
First discussed by Allan Paivio, dual-coding theory hypothesizes that visual and verbal information are processed in different areas of the brain and schemas for each are produced in different visual and verbal channels. What implications does this have for how SL interpreters create schema for information in each channel? Required
Why you remember the first and the last items of a list, but not the middle.
Muscle memory is the concept of training behaviors (or literally, gross/fine motor skills) to be automatic; we perform tasks almost subconsciously and/or without purposely thinking because we’ve performed the task multiple times. There is an analog to this in the design of the user interfaces of our phones, iPods, etc. Does muscle memory also apply to SL interpreting? What skills (if any) can be made automatic and what skills (if any) must remain outside of automatcity? Additional reading in Karni & Meyer, et al (1998). Here’s a visual example of how a two-and-a-half year-old creates muscle memory with an iPad. Required